A complete or partial break (fracture) in the femur. The femur is the major bone in the hip joint. Breaks from common injuries affect both sexes and all ages. Spontaneous (occurs without an injury) breaks and breaks from minor injuries affect mostly older people. 9 out of 10 hip fractures occur in persons over 65, and 3 out of 4 occur in women.
FREQUENT SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Severe pain when trying to walk.
Pain may occur in the groin or thigh.
Swelling, tenderness, and bruising in the hip area.
Deformed hip appearance.
Hip fractures are usually caused by injuries (trauma) such as falls, other types of accidents, and sports injuries. Weakened bones are more at risk of a fracture.
RISK INCREASES WITH
Female, over age 65, and white.
Osteoporosis, especially in women after menopause.
Decreased bone mineral density.
Falls. Risk of falls can increase with muscle weakness, problems with walking or balance, use of certain drugs, poor eyesight, foot problems, arthritis, disorders such as Parkinson's and stroke, previous falls, and home risks.
Self-reported poor health.
Family history of hip fracture.
Sedentary (lack of physical activity) lifestyle.
Previous fractures of any kind.
Motor vehicle accidents and physical activities such as contact sports for younger hip fracture patients.
Protect against falls, especially in the home.
Drug therapies to improve bone density.
Daily exercise program to improve bone strength and to maintain muscle strength and balance.
Outcome depends on the age and health of the patient and the location of the fracture. In older persons, there is often a loss of ability to function as they did before the fracture. The function loss may be mild to severe.
Surgical-wound infection, incomplete healing, and other surgery complications.
Being immobile for prolonged period can lead to blood clots, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and weakened muscles.
Loss of mobility (may require wheelchair use), loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and depression.
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT
Self-care is not appropriate. Hospital care with surgery is the main treatment. The surgeon reattaches fractured bone parts and secures them with surgical steel pins; the surgeon may also replace body parts with a medical device (complete hip or parts of a hip) in people whose bones can no longer grow back together. Unlike most fractures, hip fractures usually don't require casts.
After surgery, a time is usually spent in a rehabilitation center for therapy to help regain mobility and functions of daily living.
Ongoing physical therapy may be needed to continue to rehabilitate the muscles, bones, and joints.
Pain relievers as needed may be prescribed.
Antibiotics for infection and blood thinners to prevent blood clots may be prescribed after surgery.
Stool softeners to prevent constipation.
Drugs to increase bone mass and to prevent bone loss may be prescribed.
After surgery, move the unaffected leg often to decrease the risk of deep-vein blood clots. Most patients are urged to get up and move about as soon as possible.
A physical therapist will be needed for rehabilitation, which can take several months. A walker or crutches will be used at first. Swimming and riding an exercise bike are good forms of therapy.
Resume your normal activities to the extent possible as healing progresses.
Clear liquids for the 1st day after surgery, then no special diet. Increased calcium may be recommended.
NOTIFY OUR OFFICE IF
You or a family member has symptoms of a hip fracture. Call immediately if you have numbness or loss of feeling below the fracture site. This is an emergency!